Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, commonly called cinnamon fern, is a Missouri native fern which occurs in moist, boggy ground along streams and on shaded ledges and bluffs, primarily in the eastern Ozark region of the State. Typically grows in clumps to 2-3′ tall, but with constant moisture can reach 5′ in height. Separate spore-bearing, stiff, fertile fronds appear in early spring, quickly turning brown. The familiar “fiddleheads” also emerge from the base of the plant and unfurl into large, erect, pinnately-compound, yellowish-green, sterile fronds (2-4′ long) which remain attractive throughout the summer and turn yellow in autumn. The common name of this plant is in reference to the cinnamon colored fibers found near the frond bases. Osmunda fiber used in the potting of orchids comes from the roots of these ferns.