One of the most common native ferns, growing all over northern regions. Plants form a large, upright clump of big green fronds. In spring the unfurling fiddleheads are often harvested in the wild as a gourmet treat. Roots are spreading, and plants can form quite a large patch in time. Requires plenty of water through the summer, otherwise the foliage may become dormant. Cinnamon-brown fertile fronds push up from the centre of each clump in summer, and these remain attractive all winter long. Prune off dead foliage and fertile fronds in late winter. Deciduous.